bundle-install - Install the dependencies specified in your Gemfile
bundle install[--gemfile=GEMFILE] [--path PATH] [--system] [--without=GROUP1[ GROUP2...]] [--local] [--deployment] [--binstubs[=DIRECTORY]] [--standalone[=GROUP1[ GROUP2...]]] [--quiet] [--no-cache]
Install the gems specified in your Gemfile(5). If this is the first
time you run bundle install (and a
Gemfile.lock does not exist),
bundler will fetch all remote sources, resolve dependencies and
install all needed gems.
Gemfile.lock does exist, and you have not updated your Gemfile(5),
bundler will fetch all remote sources, but use the dependencies
specified in the
Gemfile.lock instead of resolving dependencies.
Gemfile.lock does exist, and you have updated your Gemfile(5),
bundler will use the dependencies in the
Gemfile.lock for all gems
that you did not update, but will re-resolve the dependencies of
gems that you did update. You can find more information about this
update process below under CONSERVATIVE UPDATING.
The location of the Gemfile(5) that bundler should use. This defaults to a gemfile in the current working directory. In general, bundler will assume that the location of the Gemfile(5) is also the project root, and will look for the
vendor/cacherelative to it.
The location to install the gems in the bundle to. This defaults to the gem home, which is the location that
gem installinstalls gems to. This means that, by default, gems installed without a
--pathsetting will show up in
gem list. This setting is a remembered option.
Installs the gems in the bundle to the system location. This overrides any previous remembered use of
A space-separated list of groups to skip installing. This is a remembered option.
Do not attempt to connect to
rubygems.org, instead using just the gems already present in Rubygems' cache or in
vendor/cache. Note that if a more appropriate platform-specific gem exists on
rubygems.org, it will not be found.
Switches bundler's defaults into deployment mode. Do not use this flag on development machines.
Create a directory (defaults to
bin) containing an executable that runs in the context of the bundle. For instance, if the
railsgem comes with a
railsexecutable, this flag will create a
bin/railsexecutable that ensures that all dependencies used come from the bundled gems.
Uses the ruby executable (usually
ruby) provided to execute the scripts created with --binstubs. For instance, if you use --binstubs with
--shebang jruby, all executables will be created to use jruby instead.
Make a bundle that can work without Ruby Gems or Bundler at runtime. It takes a space separated list of groups to install. It creates a
bundledirectory and installs the bundle there. It also generates a
bundle/bundler/setup.rbfile to replace Bundler's own setup.
Do not update the cache in
vendor/cachewith the newly bundled gems. This does not remove any existing cached gems, only stops the newly bundled gems from being cached during the install.
Bundler's defaults are optimized for development. To switch to
defaults optimized for deployment, use the
Do not activate deployment mode on development machines, as it
will cause in an error when the Gemfile is modified.
To ensure that the same versions of the gems you developed with and tested with are also used in deployments, a
This is mainly to ensure that you remember to check your
Gemfile.lockinto version control.
Gemfile.lockmust be up to date
In deployment, your
Gemfile.lockshould be up-to-date with changes made in your Gemfile(5).
Gems are installed to
vendor/bundlenot your default system location
In development, it's convenient to share the gems used in your application with other applications and other scripts run on the system.
In deployment, isolation is a more important default. In addition, the user deploying the application may not have permission to install gems to the system, or the web server may not have permission to read them.
As a result,
bundle install --deploymentinstalls gems to the
vendor/bundledirectory in the application. This may be overridden using the
By default, bundler installs gems to the same location as
In some cases, that location may not be writable by your Unix user. In
that case, bundler will stage everything in a temporary directory,
then ask you for your
sudo password in order to copy the gems into
their system location.
From your perspective, this is identical to installing them gems directly into the system.
You should never use
sudo bundle install. This is because several
other steps in
bundle install must be performed as the current user:
- Updating your
- Updating your
vendor/cache, if necessary
- Checking out private git repositories using your user's SSH keys
Of these three, the first two could theoretically be performed by
chowning the resulting files to
$SUDO_USER. The third, however,
can only be performed by actually invoking the
git command as
the current user. Therefore, git gems are downloaded and installed
~/.bundle rather than $GEM_HOME or $BUNDLE_PATH.
As a result, you should run
bundle install as the current user,
and bundler will ask for your password if it is needed to put the
gems into their final location.
bundle install will install all gems in all groups
in your Gemfile(5), except those declared for a different platform.
However, you can explicitly tell bundler to skip installing
certain groups with the
--without option. This option takes
a space-separated list of groups.
--without option will skip installing the gems in the
specified groups, it will still download those gems and use them to
resolve the dependencies of every gem in your Gemfile(5).
This is so that installing a different set of groups on another machine (such as a production server) will not change the gems and versions that you have already developed and tested against.
Bundler offers a rock-solid guarantee that the third-party
code you are running in development and testing is also the
third-party code you are running in production. You can choose
to exclude some of that code in different environments, but you
will never be caught flat-footed by different versions of
third-party code being used in different environments.
For a simple illustration, consider the following Gemfile(5):
source "http://rubygems.org" gem "sinatra" group :production do gem "rack-perftools-profiler" end
In this case,
sinatra depends on any version of Rack (
>= 1.0, while
rack-perftools-profiler depends on 1.x (
When you run
bundle install --without production in development, we
look at the dependencies of
rack-perftools-profiler as well. That way,
you do not spend all your time developing against Rack 2.0, using new
APIs unavailable in Rack 1.x, only to have bundler switch to Rack 1.2
production group is used.
This should not cause any problems in practice, because we do not
install the gems in the excluded groups, and only evaluate
as part of the dependency resolution process.
This also means that you cannot include different versions of the same gem in different groups, because doing so would result in different sets of dependencies used in development and production. Because of the vagaries of the dependency resolution process, this usually affects more than just the gems you list in your Gemfile(5), and can (surprisingly) radically change the gems you are using.
Some options (marked above in the OPTIONS section) are remembered
between calls to
bundle install, and by the Bundler runtime.
For instance, if you run
bundle install --without test, a subsequent
bundle install that does not include a
--without flag will
remember your previous choice.
In addition, a call to
Bundler.setup will not attempt to make the
gems in those groups available on the Ruby load path, as they were
The settings that are remembered are:
At runtime, this remembered setting will also result in Bundler raising an exception if the
Gemfile.lockis out of date.
Subsequent calls to
bundle installwill install gems to the directory originally passed to
--path. The Bundler runtime will look for gems in that location. You can revert this option by running
bundle install --system.
Bundler will update the executables every subsequent call to
As described above, Bundler will skip the gems specified by
--withoutin subsequent calls to
bundle install. The Bundler runtime will also not try to make the gems in the skipped groups available.
When you run
bundle install, Bundler will persist the full names
and versions of all gems that you used (including dependencies of
the gems specified in the Gemfile(5)) into a file called
Bundler uses this file in all subsequent calls to
which guarantees that you always use the same exact code, even
as your application moves across machines.
Because of the way dependency resolution works, even a seemingly small change (for instance, an update to a point-release of a dependency of a gem in your Gemfile(5)) can result in radically different gems being needed to satisfy all dependencies.
As a result, you
SHOULD check your
Gemfile.lock into version
control. If you do not, every machine that checks out your
repository (including your production server) will resolve all
dependencies again, which will result in different versions of
third-party code being used if
any of the gems in the Gemfile(5)
or any of their dependencies have been updated.
When you make a change to the Gemfile(5) and then run
Bundler will update only the gems that you modified.
In other words, if a gem that you
did not modify worked before
bundle install, it will continue to use the exact
same versions of all dependencies as it used before the update.
Let's take a look at an example. Here's your original Gemfile(5):
source "http://rubygems.org" gem "actionpack", "2.3.8" gem "activemerchant"
In this case, both
activemerchant depend on
actionpack gem depends on
rack ~> 1.1.0, while the
activemerchant gem depends on
activesupport >= 2.3.2,
braintree >= 2.0.0, and
builder >= 2.0.0.
When the dependencies are first resolved, Bundler will select
activesupport 2.3.8, which satisfies the requirements of both
gems in your Gemfile(5).
Next, you modify your Gemfile(5) to:
source "http://rubygems.org" gem "actionpack", "3.0.0.rc" gem "activemerchant"
actionpack 3.0.0.rc gem has a number of new dependencies,
and updates the
activesupport dependency to
= 3.0.0.rc and
rack dependency to
When you run
bundle install, Bundler notices that you changed
actionpack gem, but not the
activemerchant gem. It
evaluates the gems currently being used to satisfy its requirements:
- also used to satisfy a dependency in
activemerchant, which is not being updated
rack ~> 1.1.0
- not currently being used to satify another dependency
Because you did not explicitly ask to update
you would not expect it to suddenly stop working after updating
actionpack. However, satisfying the new
dependency of actionpack requires updating one of its dependencies.
activemerchant declares a very loose dependency
that theoretically matches
activesupport 3.0.0.rc, bundler treats
gems in your Gemfile(5) that have not changed as an atomic unit
together with their dependencies. In this case, the
dependency is treated as
activemerchant 1.7.1 + activesupport 2.3.8,
bundle install will report that it cannot update
To explicitly update
actionpack, including its dependencies
which other gems in the Gemfile(5) still depend on, run
bundle update actionpack (see
Summary: In general, after making a change to the Gemfile(5) , you
should first try to run
bundle install, which will guarantee that no
other gems in the Gemfile(5) are impacted by the change. If that
does not work, run bundle update(1).