bundle-update - Update your gems to the latest available versions
bundle update*gems [--group=NAME] [--source=NAME] [--local] [--ruby] [--bundler[=VERSION]] [--full-index] [--jobs=JOBS] [--quiet] [--force] [--patch|--minor|--major] [--strict] [--conservative]
Update the gems specified (all gems, if none are specified), ignoring
the previously installed gems specified in the
general, you should use bundle install(1) to install the same exact
gems and versions across machines.
You would use
bundle update to explicitly update the version of a
bundle update --group development. You can also call
bundle update rails --group testto update the rails gem and all gems in the test group, for example.
:pathsource used in the Gemfile(5). For instance, with a
http://github.com/rails/rails.git, you would call
bundle update --source rails
If you run
bundle update with no parameters, bundler will ignore
any previously installed gems and resolve all dependencies again
based on the latest versions of all gems available in the sources.
Consider the following Gemfile(5):
source "https://rubygems.org" gem "rails", "3.0.0.rc" gem "nokogiri"
When you run bundle install(1) the first time, bundler will resolve all of the dependencies, all the way down, and install what you need:
Fetching gem metadata from https://rubygems.org/......... Resolving dependencies... Installing builder 2.1.2 Installing abstract 1.0.0 Installing rack 1.2.8 Using bundler 1.7.6 Installing rake 10.4.0 Installing polyglot 0.3.5 Installing mime-types 1.25.1 Installing i18n 0.4.2 Installing mini_portile 0.6.1 Installing tzinfo 0.3.42 Installing rack-mount 0.6.14 Installing rack-test 0.5.7 Installing treetop 1.4.15 Installing thor 0.14.6 Installing activesupport 3.0.0.rc Installing erubis 2.6.6 Installing activemodel 3.0.0.rc Installing arel 0.4.0 Installing mail 2.2.20 Installing activeresource 3.0.0.rc Installing actionpack 3.0.0.rc Installing activerecord 3.0.0.rc Installing actionmailer 3.0.0.rc Installing railties 3.0.0.rc Installing rails 3.0.0.rc Installing nokogiri 1.6.5 Bundle complete! 2 Gemfile dependencies, 26 gems total. Use `bundle show [gemname]` to see where a bundled gem is installed.
As you can see, even though you have two gems in the Gemfile(5), your application
needs 26 different gems in order to run. Bundler remembers the exact versions
it installed in
Gemfile.lock. The next time you run bundle install(1), bundler skips
the dependency resolution and installs the same gems as it installed last time.
After checking in the
Gemfile.lock into version control and cloning it on another
machine, running bundle install(1) will still install the gems that you installed
last time. You don't need to worry that a new release of
However, from time to time, you might want to update the gems you are using to the newest versions that still match the gems in your Gemfile(5).
To do this, run
bundle update, which will ignore the
Gemfile.lock, and resolve
all the dependencies again. Keep in mind that this process can result in a significantly
different set of the 25 gems, based on the requirements of new gems that the gem
authors released since the last time you ran
Sometimes, you want to update a single gem in the Gemfile(5), and leave the rest of the
gems that you specified locked to the versions in the
For instance, in the scenario above, imagine that
nokogiri releases version
you want to update it without updating Rails and all of its dependencies. To do this,
bundle update nokogiri.
Bundler will update
nokogiri and any of its dependencies, but leave alone Rails and
Sometimes, multiple gems declared in your Gemfile(5) are satisfied by the same
second-level dependency. For instance, consider the case of
source "https://rubygems.org" gem "thin" gem "rack-perftools-profiler"
thin gem depends on
rack >= 1.0, while
rack ~> 1.0. If you run bundle install, you get:
Fetching source index for https://rubygems.org/ Installing daemons (1.1.0) Installing eventmachine (0.12.10) with native extensions Installing open4 (1.0.1) Installing perftools.rb (0.4.7) with native extensions Installing rack (1.2.1) Installing rack-perftools_profiler (0.0.2) Installing thin (1.2.7) with native extensions Using bundler (1.0.0.rc.3)
In this case, the two gems have their own set of dependencies, but they share
rack in common. If you run
bundle update thin, bundler will update
rack, which are dependencies of
thin, but not
perftools.rb, which are dependencies of
rack-perftools_profiler. Note that
bundle update thin will update
rack even though it's also a dependency of
In short, by default, when you update a gem using
bundle update, bundler will
update all dependencies of that gem, including those that are also dependencies
of another gem.
To prevent updating shared dependencies, prior to version 1.14 the only option
CONSERVATIVE UPDATING behavior in bundle install(1):
In this scenario, updating the
thin version manually in the Gemfile(5),
and then running bundle install(1) will only update
rack. For more information, see the
CONSERVATIVE UPDATING section
of bundle install(1).
Starting with 1.14, specifying the
--conservative option will also prevent shared
dependencies from being updated.
Version 1.14 introduced 4 patch-level options that will influence how gem
versions are resolved. One of the following options can be used:
--strict can be added to further influence resolution.
When Bundler is resolving what versions to use to satisfy declared requirements in the Gemfile or in parent gems, it looks up all available versions, filters out any versions that don't satisfy the requirement, and then, by default, sorts them from newest to oldest, considering them in that order.
Providing one of the patch level options (e.g.
--patch) changes the
sort order of the satisfying versions, causing Bundler to consider the
--minor version available before other versions.
Note that versions outside the stated patch level could still be
resolved to if necessary to find a suitable dependency graph.
For example, if gem 'foo' is locked at 1.0.2, with no gem requirement
defined in the Gemfile, and versions 1.0.3, 1.0.4, 1.1.0, 1.1.1, 2.0.0
all exist, the default order of preference by default (
be "2.0.0, 1.1.1, 1.1.0, 1.0.4, 1.0.3, 1.0.2".
--patch option is used, the order of preference will change to
"1.0.4, 1.0.3, 1.0.2, 1.1.1, 1.1.0, 2.0.0".
--minor option is used, the order of preference will change to
"1.1.1, 1.1.0, 1.0.4, 1.0.3, 1.0.2, 2.0.0".
--strict option with any of the patch level options
will remove any versions beyond the scope of the patch level option,
to ensure that no gem is updated that far.
To continue the previous example, if both
options are used, the available versions for resolution would be
"1.0.4, 1.0.3, 1.0.2". If
--strict are used, it would
be "1.1.1, 1.1.0, 1.0.4, 1.0.3, 1.0.2".
Gem requirements as defined in the Gemfile will still be the first
determining factor for what versions are available. If the gem
foo in the Gemfile is '~> 1.0', that will accomplish
the same thing as providing the
Given the following gem specifications:
foo 1.4.3, requires: ~> bar 2.0 foo 1.4.4, requires: ~> bar 2.0 foo 1.4.5, requires: ~> bar 2.1 foo 1.5.0, requires: ~> bar 2.1 foo 1.5.1, requires: ~> bar 3.0 bar with versions 2.0.3, 2.0.4, 2.1.0, 2.1.1, 3.0.0
foo (1.4.3) bar (~> 2.0) bar (2.0.3)
# Command Line Result ------------------------------------------------------------ 1 bundle update --patch 'foo 1.4.5', 'bar 2.1.1' 2 bundle update --patch foo 'foo 1.4.5', 'bar 2.1.1' 3 bundle update --minor 'foo 1.5.1', 'bar 3.0.0' 4 bundle update --minor --strict 'foo 1.5.0', 'bar 2.1.1' 5 bundle update --patch --strict 'foo 1.4.4', 'bar 2.0.4'
In case 1, bar is upgraded to 2.1.1, a minor version increase, because the dependency from foo 1.4.5 required it.
In case 2, only foo is requested to be unlocked, but bar is also allowed to move because it's not a declared dependency in the Gemfile.
In case 3, bar goes up a whole major release, because a minor increase is preferred now for foo, and when it goes to 1.5.1, it requires 3.0.0 of bar.
In case 4, foo is preferred up to a minor version, but 1.5.1 won't work because the --strict flag removes bar 3.0.0 from consideration since it's a major increment.
In case 5, both foo and bar have any minor or major increments removed from consideration because of the --strict flag, so the most they can move is up to 1.4.4 and 2.0.4.
In general, when working with an application managed with bundler, you should use the following workflow:
After you create your Gemfile(5) for the first time, run
$ bundle install
Check the resulting
Gemfile.lock into version control
$ git add Gemfile.lock
When checking out this repository on another development machine, run
$ bundle install
When checking out this repository on a deployment machine, run
$ bundle install --deployment
After changing the Gemfile(5) to reflect a new or update dependency, run
$ bundle install
Make sure to check the updated
Gemfile.lock into version control
$ git add Gemfile.lock
If bundle install(1) reports a conflict, manually update the specific gems that you changed in the Gemfile(5)
$ bundle update rails thin
If you want to update all the gems to the latest possible versions that still match the gems listed in the Gemfile(5), run
$ bundle update